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We have undertaken work across consultancy in medical education, innovation and research and private medical consultation and treatment since 2013.

Why CYP?

What sets us apart

We are more than just a team of consultant paediatric neurologists. We are also educators and researchers who strive to improve the lives of children and young people with neurological conditions.

We offer education and training programmes and resources for doctors and clinicians who want to enhance their skills and knowledge in paediatric neurology and developmental medicine. Our curriculum is CPD accredited, evidence based, and built upon the theory and practice of our field. We aim to increase the capacity and confidence of medics who are both practicing and/or in training by learning from experts in paediatric neurology

Areas of Expertise

Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is crucial due to their profound impact on a child's cognitive, social, and emotional development.

• What are the conditions and why are they important: ASD, a neurodevelopmental disorder, affects communication, social interaction, and behaviour. Recognising and managing ASD is paramount, given its influence on a child's ability to engage with the world. Similarly, ADHD, characterized by attention difficulties, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, can significantly impact academic and social functioning. Early intervention by healthcare professionals can enhance the developmental trajectories of children with ASD and ADHD.

• Signs and Symptoms: ASD manifests in various ways, including challenges in communication, repetitive behaviours, and difficulties in social interactions. ADHD, on the other hand, may present with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. A thorough neurological assessment is essential for accurate diagnosis, enabling tailored interventions that address the unique needs of each child.

• When to Seek Medical Advice: Parents and caregivers should seek medical advice if they observe persistent signs of ASD or ADHD in their child. Early identification allows for timely intervention, facilitating the implementation of individualised management strategies.

• Advice on Management: Managing ASD and ADHD involves a multidisciplinary strategy. From behavioural interventions and social skills training to pharmacological options when necessary. It is important to foster collaboration between healthcare professionals, educators, and families, so that children and young people with neurodevelopmental disorders can reach their full potential.

Neuro Regression and Neurodegenerative Disorders, with a Focus on Leukodystrophies (White Matter Disorders)

Neuro regression and neurodegenerative disorders can have a profound impact on the neurological development of children and young people.
• What is the Condition and Why is it Important: Neuro regression and neurodegenerative disorders represent a class of conditions where the neurological functions of children exhibit a decline over time. Leukodystrophies specifically involve abnormalities in the white matter of the brain. The importance of understanding these disorders lies in their severe implications for a child's cognitive, motor, and sensory functions. The academic exploration of these conditions is crucial for informing clinical practice and advancing therapeutic strategies.
• Signs and Symptoms: Signs of neuro regression and neurodegenerative disorders, including leukodystrophies, manifest in the gradual loss of previously acquired skills, such as language and motor abilities. Specific to leukodystrophies, symptoms may include developmental regression, spasticity, and impaired motor coordination.
• When to Seek Medical Advice: Early recognition of the signs associated with neuro regression and neurodegenerative disorders is pivotal. Parents and caregivers should seek medical advice if they observe a decline in their child's developmental milestones or notice neurological symptoms such as loss of purposeful hand movements, vision impairment, or speech regression. Timely intervention is critical for a thorough diagnostic evaluation and the initiation of appropriate management strategies.
• Treatments Available: While there may not be curative treatments for many neurodegenerative disorders, a multidisciplinary approach is essential to manage symptoms and optimize the quality of life for affected children. In the case of leukodystrophies, specific treatments may involve supportive care, physical therapy, and, in some instances, emerging experimental therapies.

Neurometabolic Disorders: Rare and Complex Neurological Conditions

Neurometabolic disorders are a category encompassing rare and complex neurological conditions related to the intricate interplay between genetic and metabolic factors.

• What are Neurometabolic Disorders and Why is it Important: Neurometabolic disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic conditions characterized by disruptions in metabolic pathways, affecting the nervous system. The importance of delving into these disorders lies in their rarity and complexity, necessitating specialized understanding and tailored neurological management. Academic research of neurometabolic disorders is essential for advancing diagnostic precision and refining therapeutic strategies.

• Signs and Symptoms: Signs of neurometabolic disorders are diverse, encompassing neurological, cognitive, and systemic manifestations. Children with these disorders may present with developmental delays, seizures, movement abnormalities, and metabolic derangements.

• When to Seek Neurological Management Advice: Early recognition and intervention are paramount in the management of neurometabolic disorders. Parents and caregivers should seek early neurological management advice if they observe unusual neurological symptoms, developmental regression, or metabolic abnormalities in their child.

• Neurological Management Strategies: The complex nature of neurometabolic disorders demands a multidisciplinary approach to neurological management. Tailored interventions may involve dietary modifications, enzyme replacement therapies, and supportive care.

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical impairment in childhood, affecting around 1 in 400 children in the UK. This means that about 1,800 babies are diagnosed with CP every year. It is a group of lifelong conditions that affect movement and co-ordination, muscle tone, and posture.

Symptoms and Presentation in Children: Children with cerebral palsy may exhibit a wide range of symptoms, including difficulty with muscle coordination, involuntary movements, and delays in reaching developmental milestones such as crawling or walking. Depending on the type and severity of CP, symptoms can vary from mild to severe, affecting one or more limbs or the entire body.

Causes and Risk Factors in Children: Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. This damage can occur during pregnancy, childbirth, or shortly after birth. Risk factors for cerebral palsy include premature birth, low birth weight, infections during pregnancy, and certain genetic factors.

Diagnosis and Treatment for Paediatric Patients: Diagnosing cerebral palsy typically involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, and possibly imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans to assess brain structure and function. Treatment may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, medications to manage symptoms, and in some cases, surgical interventions.

Balance and Coordination Problems: Ataxia and Balance Disorders

Balance and coordination problems have an impact on a child's motor skills and overall functionality. These conditions encompass ataxia due to cerebellar structural disorders, genetic ataxias, and various other causes of balance disorders.

• Understanding the Conditions and their Importance: Balance and coordination problems manifest through disruptions in the intricate neural networks governing motor control. The conditions have an impact on a child's ability to maintain stability and execute precise movements.

• Signs and Symptoms: Signs of balance and coordination problems vary widely, presenting as gait disturbances, clumsiness, and difficulties with fine motor tasks. Ataxia, particularly when arising from cerebellar structural disorders or genetic factors, may manifest with unsteady movements and impaired coordination.

• When to Seek Neurological Assessment: Early identification of signs indicative of balance and coordination problems is paramount. Parents and caregivers should seek neurological assessment when observing persistent issues with a child's balance, coordination, or motor skills.

• Neurological Management Strategies: The diverse nature of balance and coordination problems necessitates a tailored neurological management approach. Treatment may involve physical therapy to enhance motor skills, interventions addressing the underlying causes, and support to optimize functional independence.

Brain Injury: Understanding and Managing the Impact

Brain injury is a complex condition that can have profound effects on individuals and their families.

Symptoms and Presentation in Children: Brain injury can present with a wide range of symptoms, including headaches, dizziness, cognitive difficulties, and changes in mood or behaviour. These symptoms may vary depending on the severity and location of the injury, making early recognition and intervention crucial.

Causes and Risk Factors in Children: Brain injuries can occur due to various factors, including falls, sports-related injuries, motor vehicle accidents, and assaults. Children are particularly vulnerable to brain injuries due to their active lifestyles and developing brains. Understanding the common causes and risk factors can help prevent these injuries and mitigate their impact.

Diagnosis and Treatment for Paediatric Patients: Diagnosing brain injury often involves a comprehensive evaluation, including neurological exams, imaging tests (such as CT scans or MRIs), and cognitive assessments. Treatment options may vary depending on the severity of the injury but can include rest, rehabilitation therapies, medications, and in some cases, surgery. Early intervention and personalised treatment plans are essential for optimising outcomes and promoting recovery.

Conclusion: Brain injury can have significant implications for individuals and their families, but with timely intervention and appropriate care, many individuals can achieve meaningful recovery and improve their quality of life.

Headache: Migraines, Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension, Chiari Malformation, and Secondary Headaches

Headaches can have a impact on a child or young person’s daily life. These include migraines, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), Chiari malformation, and secondary headaches.

• Understanding the Conditions and their Importance: Headaches, ranging from migraines to idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Chiari malformation, and secondary headaches, are complex neurological phenomena. The importance of understanding these conditions is the potential to significantly impact a child's quality of life, from the episodic nature of migraines to the structural abnormalities underlying conditions like Chiari malformation.

• Signs and Symptoms: Signs of headaches in children are diverse and may include throbbing pain, sensitivity to light and sound, nausea, and disturbances in vision. Migraines present unique challenges, while idiopathic intracranial hypertension may manifest with elevated intracranial pressure, Chiari malformation with structural abnormalities, and secondary headaches with underlying causes such as infections or trauma.

• When to Seek Neurological Assessment: Early identification of headache symptoms is crucial for effective management. Parents and caregivers should seek neurological assessment if a child experiences persistent, severe, or recurrent headaches, particularly when associated with neurological symptoms.

• Neurological Management Strategies: The diverse nature of headache disorders necessitates a comprehensive neurological management approach. Treatment may involve lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions, or surgical options depending on the specific diagnosis.

Sleep Disorders: Daytime Sleepiness, Parasomnia, and Insomnia

Sleep disorders encompass excessive daytime sleepiness, parasomnia, and insomnia and can have an impact on a child's cognitive, emotional, and physical well-being.

• Understanding the Disorders and their Importance: Sleep disorders, ranging from excessive daytime sleepiness to parasomnia and insomnia, constitute a multifaceted spectrum of challenges in the realm of paediatric neurology. The importance of delving into these conditions lies in their potential to disrupt the delicate balance of a child's sleep-wake cycle, impacting academic performance, emotional health, and overall development. Academic research allows a comprehensive understanding of the diverse aetiologies and presentations of sleep disorders.

• Signs and Symptoms: Signs of sleep disorders in children may manifest as persistent fatigue, difficulties falling asleep or staying asleep, or engaging in abnormal behaviours during sleep. Excessive daytime sleepiness may impact daily functioning, parasomnia may involve sleepwalking or night terrors, and insomnia may contribute to prolonged periods of wakefulness at night.

• When to Seek Sleep Disorder Assessment: Early identification of sleep disorder symptoms is crucial for effective management. Parents and caregivers should seek sleep disorder assessment if a child experiences persistent difficulties with sleep, disruptions in daily functioning due to excessive daytime sleepiness, or disruptive behaviours during sleep.

• Investigation and Treatment Strategies: The diverse nature of sleep disorders necessitates a comprehensive approach to investigation and treatment. Diagnostic tools may include sleep studies, actigraphy, and detailed sleep logs to uncover patterns and potential triggers. Treatment strategies may involve behavioural interventions, lifestyle modifications, or, in some cases, pharmacological options.

Demyelinating Disorders: Anti-MOG Related Demyelination, Anti-Aquaporin 4 Related NMOSD, ADEM, Multiple Sclerosis, Transverse Myelitis, and Optic Neuritis

The spectrum of demyelinating disorders covers a diverse array, including anti-MOG related demyelination, anti-Aquaporin 4 related Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD), Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Transverse Myelitis, and Optic Neuritis. These disorders can have a profound and varied impact on a child's neurological health.

• Understanding the Disorders and their Importance: Demyelinating disorders represent a complex spectrum, each posing unique challenges to the neurological system. From anti-MOG and anti-Aquaporin 4 related demyelination to ADEM, MS, Transverse Myelitis, and Optic Neuritis, these conditions demand a nuanced understanding.

• Signs and Symptoms: Signs of demyelinating disorders in children manifest in various ways, including visual disturbances, motor weakness, sensory abnormalities, and cognitive changes. The spectrum encompasses unique features such as optic neuritis affecting vision, transverse myelitis impacting the spinal cord, and ADEM presenting as a rapid-onset encephalopathy.

• When to Seek Neurological Assessment: Early identification of signs indicative of demyelinating disorders is crucial for initiating timely intervention. Parents and caregivers should seek urgent neurological assessment if a child experiences persistent neurological symptoms, such as unexplained weakness, changes in vision, or disturbances in coordination.

• Investigation and Treatment Strategies: The diverse nature of demyelinating disorders necessitates a tertiary approach to investigation and treatment. Advanced imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and antibody testing may aid in accurate diagnosis. Treatment strategies involve immunomodulatory therapies, symptom management, and rehabilitative interventions tailored to each specific disorder.

Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors: Paediatric Neuro-oncology

Brain and spinal cord tumors include a broad spectrum, from gliomas and medulloblastomas to ependymomas and other pediatric neuro-oncological entities.

• Understanding the Tumours and their Importance: Brain and spinal cord tumours in children represent a complex array, each presenting unique challenges to neurological function. From gliomas affecting various brain regions to medulloblastomas, ependymomas, and other neuro-oncological entities, understanding the diverse characteristics of these tumours is crucial. The importance of delving into this spectrum lies in their potential to impact critical neurological functions, from motor skills to cognition.

• Signs and Symptoms: Signs of brain and spinal cord tumours in children can manifest in various ways, including headaches, seizures, motor weakness, and changes in behaviour or cognition. The spectrum encompasses specific features, such as posterior fossa syndrome in medulloblastomas or hydrocephalus in certain tumours.

• When to Seek Neurological Assessment: Early identification of signs indicative of brain and spinal cord tumours is crucial for initiating timely intervention. Parents and caregivers should seek neurological assessment if a child experiences persistent or worsening neurological symptoms, such as headaches, unexplained vomiting, or changes in motor function.

• Investigation and Treatment Strategies: The diverse nature of brain and spinal cord tumors necessitates a comprehensive approach to investigation and treatment. Advanced imaging, biopsies, and molecular profiling may aid in accurate diagnosis. Treatment strategies involve a multidisciplinary approach, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, tailored to each specific tumour type.

Fetal Neurology: Ventriculomegaly, Brain Malformations, and Spinal Cord Malformations

Ventriculomegaly, brain malformations, and spinal cord malformation can have an impact on a developing foetal nervous system.

• Understanding the Conditions and their Importance: Foetal neurology encompasses a nuanced understanding of neurological development, particularly the presence of ventriculomegaly, brain malformations, and spinal cord malformations.

• Signs and Symptoms: Signs of foetal neurology conditions may be detected through advanced prenatal imaging, revealing enlarged ventricles in ventriculomegaly, structural abnormalities in brain malformations, and deviations in spinal cord development.

• Prenatal Neurological Assessment: Early identification of signs indicative of ventriculomegaly, brain malformations, or spinal cord malformations is crucial for initiating appropriate prenatal care. Parents should ensure adherence to prenatal monitoring and diagnostic ultrasound screening via your maternity healthcare provider so that any potential abnormalities are identified early.

• Management Strategies and Counseling: The diverse nature of foetal neurology necessitates a compassionate and informed approach to management and counselling. For conditions like ventriculomegaly, the extent and impact on the developing brain guide counselling and potential interventions. For brain and spinal cord malformations, discussions may include potential outcomes, treatment options, and support services.

Facial Nerve Palsy and Cranial Nerve Disorders: Facial Function and Cranial Nerve Integrity

Facial nerve palsy and other cranial nerve disorders, including disorders affecting the facial nerve as well as abnormalities within other cranial nerves.

• Understanding the Disorders and their Importance: Facial nerve palsy and cranial nerve disorders represent a spectrum of challenges, each with unique implications for neurological well-being. From facial nerve dysfunction to disorders involving other cranial nerves, understanding the diverse characteristics of these conditions is crucial.

• Signs and Symptoms: Signs of facial nerve palsy and other cranial nerve disorders may manifest in various ways, including asymmetry in facial expressions, difficulty in swallowing, changes in taste perception, or impaired eye movement. The spectrum encompasses specific features such as Bell's palsy affecting the facial nerve or abnormalities in the optic, oculomotor, or trigeminal nerves.

• When to Seek Neurological Assessment: Early identification of signs indicative of facial nerve palsy or other cranial nerve disorders is crucial for initiating timely intervention. Parents and caregivers should seek neurological assessment if a child experiences persistent abnormalities in facial movement, changes in sensory perception, or difficulties in functions related to specific cranial nerves.

• Investigation and Treatment Strategies: The diverse nature of facial nerve palsy and cranial nerve disorders necessitates a comprehensive approach to investigation and treatment. Advanced imaging, electrodiagnostic testing, and specialized assessments may aid in accurate diagnosis. Treatment strategies involve targeted therapies, rehabilitative interventions, and, in certain cases, surgical interventions.

Sensory Disturbances of Neurological Origin: Paraesthesiae, Numbness, Pain, Taste, and Smell

Sensory disturbances of likely neurological origin includes paraesthesiae and numbness to pain, taste, and smell abnormalities. These sensory challenges can have on a child's perception and overall well-being.

• Understanding the Disturbances and their Importance: Sensory disturbances of neurological origin represent a complex array, each presenting unique challenges to a child's sensory perception. From paraesthesiae and numbness affecting tactile sensations to pain, taste, and smell abnormalities, understanding the diverse characteristics of these disturbances is crucial. The importance of delving into this spectrum lies in their potential to significantly impact a child's quality of life and daily functioning. Academic scrutiny is paramount for unravelling the diverse aetiologies and manifestations of these sensory challenges.

• Signs and Symptoms: Signs of sensory disturbances in children may manifest in various ways, including tingling sensations, loss of feeling, pain, alterations in taste or smell, and abnormalities in tactile or thermal perception. The spectrum encompasses specific features such as neuropathic pain, dysgeusia, anosmia, or altered tactile sensitivity.

• When to Seek Neurological Assessment: Early identification of signs indicative of sensory disturbances is crucial for initiating timely intervention. Parents and caregivers should seek neurological assessment if a child experiences persistent abnormalities in sensation, pain perception, or alterations in taste and smell.

• Investigation and Treatment Strategies: The diverse nature of sensory disturbances necessitates a comprehensive approach to investigation and treatment. Advanced neuroimaging, sensory testing, and nerve conduction studies may aid in accurate diagnosis. Treatment strategies involve targeted therapies, pain management interventions, and rehabilitative approaches tailored to each specific sensory challenge.

Medical Disclaimer

The information on this website is for educational purposes only. It does not constitute professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always consult with your child’s General Practitioner (GP) or a qualified healthcare provider if you have any concerns about your child’s health, symptoms or medical conditions.

Important Points:

  1. Educational Purpose: The content presented here is for informational purposes and should not be considered a substitute for personalised medical advice.
  2. Individual Assessment: Every child’s health situation is unique. Consultation with a healthcare professional is essential for accurate assessment and individual recommendations.
  3. Emergency Situations: If your child is experiencing severe symptoms, sudden changes in health, or medical emergencies, seek immediate medical attention. Call your GP or visit the nearest emergency department.
  4. Risk and Liability: While we strive to provide accurate and up-to-date information, we are not liable for any adverse outcomes resulting from reliance on the content of this website.

Remember that your child’s health is precious, and timely professional advice is crucial. Do not delay seeking medical attention based on information obtained from this website.

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